Since the beginning of time, the church of God has cherished education. Already Adam and Eve gave instruction to their children, as is evident from the fact that Cain and Abel knew which type of sacrifice the Lord required of them. Although there were times in the history of the church where the church began to grow cold in her love of education, the love was once again restored in the Reformation. Luther thought that education was so important that he said:

When schools prosper, the Church remains righteous and her doctrine pure.. Young pupils and students are the seed and source of the Church. If we were dead, whence would come our successors if not from the schools? For the sake of the Church we must have and maintain Christian schools.[1]

Ever since Luther and Calvin, Reformed churches have highly regarded education.  Why does education have such high regard among Reformed people? I believe that there are especially two reasons. Frst, the covenant forms the basis of our schools and calls us to learn more about God’s creation. Second, the creation is a means by which we can know God. Belgic Confession Article 2 states:

We know Him by two means: first, by the creation, preservation and government of the universe; which is before our eyes as a most elegant book, wherein all creatures, great and small, are as so many characters leading us to contemplate the invisible things of God, namely, His eternal power and divinity, as the apostle Paul saith (Rom. 1:20). All which things are sufficient to convince men, and leave them without excuse.[2]

These are reasons for education in general. This is why we have established Christian day schools. Whether we are talking about grade school, high school, college, or anything beyond, these reasons can be used to support the cause of education.

With that being said, is there any reason why we need to get an education beyond high school? If our grade schools and high schools are doing a good job, which I have no doubt that they are, then we should already know quite a bit about the world that God created. However, we are called to be life-long learners. Therefore we should never reach a point in our lives where we stop learning and seeking out knowledge. Beyond that, however, there are especially three reasons why higher education is important.[3]

First, at college you gain information and knowledge. Most colleges and universities have a core program that all students are required to take. In the core program at Dordt College there is a wide varieties of classes that must be taken in order for a student to graduate with a bachelor’s degree. In this variety of classes, you can learn a lot about the creation of God. You study the creation and created orders. In studying these things, you learn more about God. There is a covenantal reason for studying these things. Prof. Engelsma writes about this in his book Reformed Education:

God’s covenant is cosmic. It extends to, and brings into its compass, the entire creation of God and all creatures in the creation, organically considered… There is a need for a positive development of the truth of the cosmic covenant in its own right and for an application of it to the Reformed life in general and in Christian education in particular. [4]

We do not learn more and more information just because we want to make ourselves look better. We do not even first learn information so that we can further ourselves in this world in our careers. Instead, we study the creation because God created it and he loves it. We see the love of the Creator in the creation.

The second reason that higher education is important is because it develops the ability to think and reason. People often think that you should go to college for the degree, so that you can join the career that they feel called to. If you do not need a degree for your career, then do not bother with going to college. However, this is not necessarily true. Colleges and universities do much more than just prepare you for your career. They develop your ability to think, analyze, and reason, which will help you in every area of life. This does not mean that those without a college degree do not have any ability to think or reason. However, going to college will make you better personally at thinking and reasoning than would you would be if you do not go to college. Therefore no matter your occupation or calling in life, it is beneficial to receive higher education.

The third benefit of higher education is that it exposes you to other ideas and philosophies. Although we need to be careful with how far we take this, there is some benefit to exposing ourselves to what others in the world believe. We are not Anabaptists, who believe in world flight. We are in the world but not of it. Therefore we ought to be aware what others are teaching and believing. There are a number of different reasons that we need to know what others are teaching and believing. This will always have an influence on us, whether or not we recognize it. For example, postmodernism is influencing us. Therefore we need to study postmodernism and analyze it so that we can recognize the negative influences of it and combat against it.

Another reason why we should be exposed to other ideas is so that we can give warning and instruction to those who will follow after us. For example, I was well warned in high school of postmillennial views that I would face at college. Who warned me of this? It was those who had been to college themselves and experienced it already. Our ministers typically do a great job of know the ideas and philosophies of the world and then warning the congregation of them. Many times in the sermon the minister will point out the wrong philosophies and teachings that have arisen from the specific Bible passage that they are preaching from. However, it is not just the responsibility of ministers to warn others. Parents have a responsibility to give warning and instruction to their children. Therefore parents can be better prepared for this by going to college themselves.

A third benefit to exposing yourself to ideas is that when you personally encounter ideas that are contrary to your own, you feel a greater need to analyze and critique the views. Think of all the wrong theological teachings that are present in the world today. There are many different sects, cults, denominations; there are Lutherans, Calvinists, Pentecostals, and many other different religious teachings in the world. Yet if you would look at which false doctrines Protestant Reformed authors spend the most time writing about, most likely you would find that it is common grace and a conditional covenant. Why these two topics out of all the false doctrines that are out there? It is because as a denomination we have personally encountered these teachings. Therefore we feel a great need to speak out against them. In a higher educational setting, you will personally experience many different ideas and be able argue against them.

While there are benefits to higher education, there are also dangers for which we need to be on guard. There are especially two dangers of higher education. The first danger is the exposure to sin apart from parental supervision. Although some of us attend Christian colleges, sin still abounds on the campus life. Perhaps it is not as common or as blatant as the sin at the non-Christian colleges and universities; yet there is still sin. There is pressure put on you to lower your standards of godliness. Group members become frustrated that you will not meet to work on a project on Sunday. People give up on trying to hang out with you if you will not go to the movies with them or drink excessive amounts of alcohol with them. Not only are there ungodly lifestyles, there are also many false doctrines. While there is some benefit to being exposed to these so that you can better fight against them, there is also a danger that they will lead you astray if you are not on guard.

Some ways to combat the danger of the exposure to the sinfulness of the college campus is by maintaining a healthy relationship with your parents, your church friends, and the minister or elders of your church. These are all people who are concerned with your well-being and equipped to help you. Your parents especially are concerned and have the responsibility to watch out for you. Therefore I think that it is wise to go to a campus that is near home. This allows you to talk frequently with your parents and to discuss what you are encountering at college with them. It also gives your parents a better opportunity to encourage you in your godly walk.

A second danger of higher education is pride. With more knowledge comes the temptation to be proud. Scripture speaks of this in 1 Corinthians 8:1–2: “Knowledge puffeth up…And if any man think that he knoweth any thing, he knoweth nothing yet as he ought to know.” This text speaks about having knowledge that puffs us up. This is the same type of knowledge that Satan had. Satan is a very knowledgeable fallen angel. Yet it was his extensive knowledge and power made him proud so that he sought to become as God. We must also be on guard against this as we strive to get more knowledge of God.

The primary way in which we can fight against this danger is through the means of prayer. Jesus taught us to pray, “Lead us not into temptation.” John Calvin also gave a beautiful example of a how to pray specifically against pride in the pursuit of higher education. In his prayer, he states:

And seeing thou promisest that thou wilt bestow wisdom on babes, and such as are humble, and the knowledge of thself on the upright in hear, while thou declarest that thou wilt cast down the wicked and the proud, so that they will fade away I their ways, I entreat that thou wouldst be pleased to turn me to true humility, that thus I may show myself teachable and obedient first of all to thyself, and then to those also who by thy authority are placed over me. Be pleased at the same time to root out all vicious desires from my heart, and inspire it with an earnest desire of seeking thee.[5]

This is the humility that we, as college students, must continually ask of the Lord so that we do not fall into pride and think ourselves to be as god.

In summary, higher education is a good gift that I believe should be utilized whenever possible. While we need to be on guard for the dangers, we can grow in diverse ways by receiving higher education. If you receive higher education, employ yourself diligently so that you do not waste the opportunities that you have to learn more God and his world. Follow the command of God given in Proverbs 4:7: “Wisdom is the principal thing; therefore get wisdom: and with all thy getting get understanding.”

[1] Quotation taken from PowerPoint presentation in Prof. R. Dykstra’s class “History and Principles of Protestant Reformed Education”. (May 27, 2015)

[2] Protestant Reformed Churches in America. (2005). By what means God is made know unto us. In The Confessions and the Church Order of the Protestant Reformed Churches (p. 24). Grandville, MI: Reformed Free Publishing Association

[3] Three reasons taken from Prof. R. Dykstra’s lecture in the class, “History and Principles of Protestant Reformed Education”.  (May 29, 2015)

[4] Engelsma, D. J. (2000). Reformed Education (3rd ed., pp. 4-5). Grandville, MI: Reformed Free Publishing Association.

[5] Calvin, J. (n.d.). Catechism of the Church of Geneva.

The Fourth Man, written by P. S. Kuiper and translated by Rev. Cornelius Hanko, tells the story of the Afscheiding in the Netherlands. Afscheiding is the Dutch word for “separation.” In this tale we are given the story of a separation from the state church from the perspective of different families in the Netherlands. Overall this story describes the struggles and hardships that these Dutch men went through in order to form a true church of God. Essentially, the struggles that these men went through are the same struggles that the church has had to go through in the past and will always be going through until Christ returns.

The story begins with a young boy Maarten (Martin) Boelhouwer at school. The one boy that Maarten does not like is Toon Bollebakker. Toon’s father is a deacon in the state church, and the Bollebakkers are wealthy which Toon likes to brag about. The story moves on to a poor boy named Koen Splint who works at a weaver’s mill where many others in his family work, including his father who was called “Pious Evert.” The story then shifts to four men who were part of the secessionist movement, who break a wheel while traveling near the Boelhouwer’s farm. The men go to the Boelhouwer’s, get the wheel fixed, and in the meantime convince the Boelhouwers to join the secession. Once again the story goes back to Koen, whose father writes to the deacons at the state church telling them of their financial troubles. Toon’s father, the deacon at the state church, comes to assess the situation but offers no financial aid. Koen’s father then turns to the Secessionists, leaves the state church and gets fired, but the Secessionists help him get work. The story then moves on to Rev. Buddingh and Jan Donker who make a dangerous trip to Hilversum for the reverend to preach. Constable Van Huizen sees them, goes to the town mayor, and they both barge in on the worship service. The Secessionists get in trouble. A few days later the two policemen come to Gijsbert Haan’s farm where the Secessionists are gathered for worship and start attacking them with a mob. Most of the group gets away before they are hurt too badly. After this the members of the Secession movement are tormented by many people no matter their age. Finally, eleven years later, the Secessionists only option is to leave the Netherlands and come to America where they can receive freedom of worship.

In this story are many struggles that the members of the Secessionist’s movement went through because they felt that the state church was falling away from the Word of God. We can think especially of the time when the two policemen followed by a mob attacked the group which was gathered for Sunday worship. Then also we can think of Koen’s father losing his job because he left the state church. Another instance of this was Maarten getting beat up by Toon and all his friends. Also men from the Secessionist movement were put in jail for ridiculous reasons. Finally, it became so bad for these people that they left the Netherlands and came to America. However, as the people prepared to leave for America, Maarten’s grandfather made a very wise statement, “Maybe you will find freedom there, but not perfection.” Now we, generations later, can see the truth of that statement. America has followed in the footsteps of the ungodly.

This brings us to the realization that not only the church in the Netherlands, but also the church of all ages is engaged in the fighting against apostasy in the church. Paul started the New Testament church out on the correct paths. Over time the church veered off these paths and God’s people had to fight to continue the true church. Then again the church would veer off the old paths, and God had to call out men such as Martin Luther and John Calvin to bring God’s church back to the truth of God’s Word. Yet not long after the Reformation, as we read in the story, the church in the Netherlands (and more churches in Europe) left the old paths and again a reformation had to take place. Finally, many churches came to America so that they could have religious freedom, and America was a fairly conservative nation. Yet, slowly, all these churches began to depart from the Word of God, and now, centuries later, we see that America is running away from these old paths. America wants nothing to do with the Word of God and mocks and scorns those that do. Each time the church turns back to the old paths it is always a bitter struggle for God’s people.

Even in the history of the Protestant Reformed Church we can see these patterns continued. First, the Christian Reformed Church started. Then as they began to veer off the path, the Protestant Reformed Church was formed. Since the formation of the Protestant Reformed Church we continue to struggle to keep apostasy out of our churches (i.e. year of 1953). We know that the two reasons for the veering off of the old paths are man’s sinful and depraved nature and the work of Satan.

When we look at what has happened in the past to the church we may become dejected. For when we look to the past it seems inevitable that soon there will not be a true church of God. However, we must not despair. In Revelations 2:7 we find comforting words for the church, “He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto to churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God.” So the church of God must look to the future when Christ will come again. The church will be the perfect bride of Christ and will no longer depart from the Word of God. Instead the church will perfectly glorify and magnify God.

The Fourth Man is an encouragement to the Christian. As we see the courage that these people had, it encourages us also. We must give thanks to God for keeping his remnant church in the past and look forward to the day when he shall send his Son on the clouds of glory to bring his church into perfect fellowship with him.

“Tolerate! Tolerate! Tolerate!” This is the demand of the postmodern world today. Much of the church world echoes this demand with words such as, “Do not judge, just love the brother.” How common is it for the false church not to embrace the world’s demands, put a “Christian perspective” on them, and then claim them as the demands of God. In this way Satan uses the church to promote worldly thinking. As with most things, it is usually quite easy to reject the world’s blatant lies, but it requires discernment to recognize the false church’s sly deceptions. It is regarding this intent that it is wise and timely to consider the topic of judging. It is especially pertinent to consider judging in these three ways. First, why must we judge? Second, how must we judge? Thirdly, what must we judge?

Why must we judge? Before answering this question, it is first necessary to see if there is any place for judging at all in the Christian’s life. Is it proper in any way for a Christian to judge? At first glance it appears as if Matthew 7:1 tells us that Christians must never judge when scripture says, “Judge not, that ye be not judged.” However, we know from our lives that it is impractical and unreasonable to make the claim that Christians may never judge. After all, every time we go shopping we make a judgment about the brands of food, clothing, or electronic devices that we should buy. In fact, every time we make a decision we are making a judgment. If then it is impossible for us never to judge, what does Matthew 7:1 mean when it calls Christians not to judge? This chapter answers this question in verse 5, which clearly demonstrates that the text is speaking about the manner in which we judge but is not forbidding all forms of judgment. John Calvin in his commentary on Matthew 7 states, “These words of Christ do not contain an absolute prohibition for judging, but are intended to cure a disease, which appears to be natural to us all.” (345) In the next paragraph, Calvin again states, “It is not necessary that believers should become blind, and perceive nothing…” (346)

Although we now see that God does not forbid judging, the question still remains whether Christians have the calling to judge. Scripture, the Reformed confessions, and our forefathers plainly demonstrate that it is necessary for the Christian to judge in especially two regards. First and most importantly, every Christian is called to make a judgment about the church. Articles 28 and 29 of the Belgic Confession teach that all Christians are called to judge whether a church is true or false by examining the three marks of a true church and then joining themselves to a true church. Although this type of judgment is very important in the lives of all Christians, even those who are Protestant Reformed, it is not my intent to focus on this aspect of judging. Rather, my intent is to expound on the second aspect of judging, the calling that all Christians have to make judgments in regard to people. It is important to note that judging in this context is not synonymous with condemning, as many people take it to mean. Rather, judging is used more broadly to refer to both positive and negative judgments.

Why are Christians called to make judgments regarding people? First, it is a necessity for an antithetical walk. Genesis 3:15 says, “And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, between thy seed and her seed.” Psalm 139: 21–22 teach us to hate those who hate God. We can judge whether or a not a person loves God by observing his obedience to God’s commandments. In John 14:24 Jesus teaches, “He that loveth me not keepeth not my sayings: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father’s which sent me.” In order for us to live an antithetical life, we are called to make judgments about people.

Second, it is necessary for Christians to make judgments about people within the church, so that we hold one another accountable. Proverbs 27: 17 teaches us that iron sharpens iron. Ecclesiates 4: 9–10 states, “Two are better than one; because they have a good reward for their labour. For if they fall, the one will lift up his fellow: but woe to him that is alone when he falleth; for he hath not another to help him up.” This is our motivation for judging others within the church, namely, building one another up. Never must we use our calling to judge as an excuse for our gossiping and backbiting. Christians are called to judge each other in order to hold each other accountable. This is necessary so that Christian discipline can be administered within the church. Matthew 18 calls the church to proper church discipline. In order for church discipline to be carried out, judgments must be made about people.

Finally, it is necessary for Christians to make judgments about people because the word that they bring goes forth as a two-edged sword (Heb. 4:12) and never returns to God void (Isa. 55:11). When we make a judgment about a person, especially one close to us, we often worry about what the person’s reaction will be to our judgment of them. When we see a friend or family member walking in sin, we hesitate to point out his sin because we are afraid that he will get angry with us. However, we must remember that when we bring God’s word, it always accomplishes God’s will. It either will harden the sinner in his sinful, disobedient ways, or it will bring the sinner to repentance before God.

Seeing that Christians are called to judge, the next matter for consideration is to determine the proper manner in which to judge. We will do this by first looking negatively at ways which we ought not to judge. Then we will examine positively how we ought to properly judge.

In his sermon on the mount, Jesus taught us how we should not judge. In Matthew 7: 1–5 Jesus strongly reprimands hypocritical judging. In verse 5 he states, “Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam that is in thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother’s eye.” In order to judge in a non-hypocritical way, it is necessary that we first examine ourselves so that we can clearly cast out all pervasive sins from our lives and live a new and holy life. Hypocritical judging is an enormous temptation for all of God’s people. It is so easy for us to spot sins in others’ lives while we overlook our own sins.

The proper way to judge is laid out for us in Matthew 18, which speaks of judging within the church, but can be applied to every area of our lives. Notice the motivation that the text gives for pointing out a sin in a person’s life. Jesus gives the parable of the shepherd who left the ninety-nine sheep in order to search for the missing one. This is always the goal: repentance. We do not judge others in order to make ourselves feel better about ourselves. Rather, we judge them so that we can bring the word of God to them and turn them from their sinful ways. In all of our judging that we do, we must remember the words of Philippians 2:3, which tell us to esteem others higher than ourselves.

Not only does Matthew 18 teach us the proper motivation that ought to be behind all of our judging, but it also teaches us the correct manner in which we are called to judge. We are not called to make a judgment about a person and then keep our judgment to ourselves. Neither are we called to make a judgment and then use our judgment to gossip about that person or group of people. Rather we are called to speak out our biblically-based judgments. In some cases, as described in Matthew 18, this is to be an individual conversation that might eventually get taken to the church. In other cases we are called to speak out against sin and sinners in a public way. We see this demonstrated for us in many of the Old Testament major and minor prophets. Many of them were called to speak judgments to the children of Israel. However, in this regard we need to be careful. Although we are called to leave no man without excuse, Matthew 7:6 warns us not to cast our pearls before swine.

Since now we see that it is indeed necessary for Christians to judge, and that there is a proper way in which to judge, it is necessary to examine last what exactly we judge about person. What ought to be the object of our judgment? Within Christianity and the church world, this is the biggest gray and controversial area. Do we judge only actions, or are we called to judge person themselves? A popular phrase among Christians today is “hate the sin, love the sinner.” When this phrase gets applied to judging, it quite often is said that we can judge the actions of a person, but we may not judge the sinner himself. If we would judge the sinner, we are accused of making ourselves self-righteous and taking on a holier than thou attitude.

We are called to judge actions. If we are called to hold one another accountable, we need to make a judgment about their actions. Second, we are called to judge people themselves. There are differences in the ways in which we judge people. When we make a judgment about the actions of a person, we are necessarily making a judgment about the person himself. Imagine reading a poorly written book, and when you finish the book, you decide to contact the author. In your message to the author, you make it clear that you thought the book was poorly written. In this way you make it known to the author that at the time the book was written, he was a bad author. You make a judgment about him as an author at that moment. So too,when we judge the actions of a person, we are making a judgment about that person at that particular moment. As stated earlier, judgment is necessary in order to walk antithetically. Walking antithetically means walking separate from sinners. Psalm 1:1 states, “Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful.” This means that we must make a judgment about people. We do not judge a person’s eternal state as if to condemn him to hell. Instead, we simply judge that at this moment in time, he does not reveal himself to be a child of God. This is a judgment of the person himself.

However, there is another way in which we judge people. This second type of judging is done only through the church. In this judging we make a temporal judgment about the man’s destiny. This is done only regarding those who have been excommunicated from the church. In the Form for Excommunication we read:

Therefore we, the ministers and rulers of the church of God, being here assembled in the name and authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, declare before you all, that for the aforesaid reasons we have excommunicated, and by these do excommunicate N. from the church of God, and from fellowship with Christ, and the holy sacraments, and from all the spiritual blessings and benefits which God promiseth to and bestows upon His church, so long as he obstinately and impenitently persists in his sins, and is therefore to be accounted by you as a heathen man and a publican, according to the command of Christ (Matt. 18), who saith that whatsoever His ministers bind on earth shall be bound in heaven.


The fact that this judgment about the eternal state of this person is only a temporal judgment is evidenced by the Reformed church’s seeing a need to include the Form for Readmitting Excommunicated Persons. This forms states, “whereby he giveth to understand that when any person is cut off from his church, he is not deprived of all hope of salvation, but can again be loosed from the bonds of condemnation.” The judgments that the church makes are not unchangeable. God can soften the hearts of the hardest sinners and bring him back into the church. What a joy for the church! Even though for a time a person may need to be put out of the church, God can bring him back in true sorrow for sins.

This is always our joy in judgment. Although the world and the false church hate judgments, for the true believer judgments are a means of salvation. It is through judging one another that we grow up into Christ. The ungodly hate judgments because they desire to continue on blissfully in their sins. For the elect children of God, judgments always bring us back to God in the way of repentance. Give thanks to God for this gift which He has given to his church!


Calvin, John. Commentary on a Harmony of the Evangelists, Matthew, Mark, and Luke, vol. 1. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1979), 345–47. Calvin’s Commentaries.

Belgic Confession in Confessions and the Church Order of the Protestant Reformed Churches. Grandville: Protestant Reformed Churches in America, 2005. 60-64.

Form for Excommunication in The Confessions and the Church Order of the Protestant Reformed Churches. Grandville: Protestant Reformed Churches in America, 2005. 276–78.

Form for Readmitting Excommunicated Persons in ibid., 280–82.

God is our Father and friend
What a joyous thought
In sadness our hearts He will mend
With Christ’s blood us He bought
What a joyous thought
We must never be scared
With Christ’s blood us He bought
He has always for us cared
We must never be scared
For our loving Father is He
He has always for us cared
In eternity He planned my whole life for me
For our loving Father is He
In sadness our hearts He will mend
In eternity He planned my whole life for me
God is our Father and friend


The Christian is placed in many different circumstances while on this earth. Some are characterized by hardships and trials, and others are full of joy and peace. How should the Christian respond? Throughout the Bible there are numerous times where God’s people sang in response to their various circumstances. Singing in response to God’s ordering […]

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The book of Proverbs was written by King Solomon to his young adult son. Solomon’s purpose in writing Proverbs was “that the generation to come might know them [God’s wonderful works]…that they might set their hope in God, and not forget the works of God, but keep his commandments” (Ps. 78:6–7). Throughout the book, Solomon […]

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The group of churches that John writes to in this trio of epistles had recently experienced a split because of doctrinal controversy. We do not know the exact content of the error that these false teachers were spreading, but it is apparent from John’s writing that their teaching somehow denied the truth of the incarnation—that […]

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Jael: An Example of Christian Warfare

This article was originally presented as a speech at a Protestant Reformed mini convention held at Quaker Haven Camp in August 2021. Jael lived during the era of the judges. Deborah the prophetess was the judge who served Israel at the time of Jael. During this time, the Canaanites under the rule of king Jabin […]

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Indiana Mini Convention Review 2021

One of this year’s “mini conventions” was hosted by Grace and Grandville Protestant Reformed Churches at Quaker Haven Camp. Located just over two hours away in northern Indiana, the camp was a perfect fit for the 120 kids and 15 chaperones who attended. A total of twelve different churches were represented: Byron Center, Faith, First […]

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Editorial, November 2021: Catechism Season

At the point that this edition of Beacon Lights arrives in the homes of our subscribers, most young people in the Protestant Reformed Churches will have been sitting under the catechism instruction of their pastor or elders for more than a month. If our readers are honest, that observation probably comes with a (quiet) sigh […]

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Tennessee Young People’s Retreat 2021

The 2021 Tennessee young people’s retreat was held August 9 to 13 by Providence, Hudsonville, Unity, and First (Holland) Protestant Reformed Churches. The retreat took place at Eagle Rock Retreat Center in the city of Tallassee. It was about an eleven-hour drive, give or take a bit due to stops for food and restrooms. Though […]

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